True False Examination Questions by Year for Back & Upper Limb Written Examination

True False for 2007 Back & Upper Limb Written Examination

1. With regard to the back and the vertebral column:
a.The anterior longitudinal ligament limits extension of the back.
b.The serratus posterior inferior muscle is innervated by the thoracodorsal nerve.
c.The suboccipital nerve provides motor innervation to the rectus capitis posterior major and minor and the superior and inferior obliquus capitis muscles.
d.The denticulate ligaments are extensions of the arachnoidea.
e.The thoracolumbar fascia provides a site of origin for the latissimus dorsi muscle.
f.The dural sac extends inferiorly to the level of the 2nd sacral vertebrae.
g.The internal posterior vertebral venous plexus is within the subarachnoid space.
h.The anterior longitudinal ligament of the spine forms part of the anterior boundary of the vertebral canal.
i.The ligamentum fuscia extends between adjacent spines.
j.The levator scapula muscle originates from transverse processes C1-C4 and inserts onto superior angle of scapula.
k.A lesion of the upper root of the brachial plexus would weaken protraction of the scapula.
l.The long thoracic nerve is derived from the lower 3 roots of the brachial plexus.
m.A lesion of the long thoracic nerve would affect complete abduction of the arm.
n.Entrapment of the suprascapular nerve at the suprascapular notch could cause uncompensated loss of arm abduction from 0 - 15 degrees and compensated loss of medial rotation of the arm.
o.A lesion of the lower subscapular nerve would cause weakened arm adduction.

2. With regard to the axilla and brachial plexus:
a.The dorsal scapular nerve arises from the posterior cord of the brachial plexus.
b.A lesion of the medial and lateral pectoral nerves would weaken medial rotation and abduction of the arm.
c.The thoracoacromial artery usually arises from the second segment of the axillary artery.
d.Transection (complete division) of the medial cord of the brachial plexus would result in loss of elbow flexion.
e.A lesion of the ulnar nerve within the axilla would cause the resting hand to be extended and adducted.
f.A lesion of the radial nerve within the axilla would cause anesthesia of the dorsum of the hand in the region of the anatomical snuffbox.
g.The ascending branch of the profunda brachii artery enters an anastomosis in the shoulder region.
h.Complete lesions of the ulnar, median, and musculocutaneous nerves within the axilla will cause total loss of flexion at the elbow.
i.A lesion of the radial nerve at the spiral groove would cause loss of extension at the elbow.
j.The ulnar nerve enters the anterior arm by passing through the heads of origin of the flexor carpi ulnaris.
k.Ligation of the axillary artery distal to the thyrocervical trunk and proximal to the subscapular artery causes reverse blood flow in the circumflex scapular artery.
l.Ligation of the axillary artery immediately distal to the posterior humeral circumflex artery causes reverse blood flow in the ascending branch of the profunda brachii artery.
m.The upper subscapular nerve sends a lateral branch to the teres major muscle.

3. With regard to the arm:
a.The brachioradialis muscle assists the biceps brachii in flexing the arm.
b.The pectoralis major muscle crosses the transverse humeral ligament prior to inserting on the lateral lip of the intertubercular sulcus (bicipital groove).
c.The radial collateral artery, within the cubital fossa, is between brachioradialis and the medial border of the brachialis.
d.Within the cubital fossa the median nerve lies lateral to the brachial artery.
e.The median cubital vein crosses the superficial surface of the bicipital aponeurosis.
f.The interosseous recurrent artery is, in part, within the cubital fossa.
g.The humeral head of the pronator teres takes origin from the lateral humeral epicondyle.
h.The lateral head of the triceps brachii originates superior and lateral to the spiral groove whereas the medial head of the triceps brachii originates medial and inferior to the spiral groove.
i.The profunda brachii artery gives rise to the middle collateral artery and the radial recurrent artery.
j.The ulnar head of the pronator teres takes origin from the coronoid process of the ulna.
k.A complete lesion of the radial nerve at the spiral (radial) groove causes uncompensated loss of pronation of the forearm.
l.The radial nerve passes posterior to the superior free edge of teres minor to enter into the triangular interval.
m.Both the coracobrachialis and the short head of the biceps flex the forearm and both arise from the corocoid process.

4. With regard to the forearm:
a.The ulnar nerve passes between the two heads of origin of the extensor carpi radialis muscle.
b.The pronator quadratus muscle has a ulnar origin and an radius insertion.
c.A complete lesion of the ulnar nerve at the ulnar groove would cause loss of willful flexion at the distal interphalangeal joints for the medial two digits.
d.A complete lesion of the ulnar nerve at the ulnar groove would cause the wrist joint of the resting hand to be partially extended and partially adducted.
e.A complete lesion of the median nerve in the axilla will weaken flexion at the elbow joint.
f.A complete lesion of the median nerve superior to the cubital fossa will cause the wrist to be partially extended and partially adducted.
g.The ulnar artery leaves the cubital fossa by passing between the humeral and ulnar heads of origin of the pronator teres muscle whereas the ulnar nerve proceeds into the forearm between the humeral and ulnar heads of origin of the flexor carpi ulnaris muscle.
h.The median nerve passes anterior to the superior free edge of the flexor digitorum profundus.
i.Within the distal forearm the median nerve is along the medial border of flexor carpi radialis.
j.The extensor carpi ulnaris and flexor carpi ulnaris are synergists in regards to adduction of the hand at the wrist.
k.The posterior interosseus nerve pierces the interosseus membrane to innervate pronator quadratus.
l.Flexor Carpi Radialis is included in the carpal tunnel.
m.The anterior interosseous artery passes anterior to pronator quadratus.
n.The anterior ulnar recurrent artery courses between the brachialis muscle and pronator teres muscle to anastomose with the inferior ulnar collateral artery.
o.The primary action of the pronator quadratus muscle is pronation, however this muscle can "switch" origin and insertion and act as a supinator if the forearm and hand are fully pronated.

5. With regard to the hand:
a.The ulnar nerve enters the palm of the hand medial to the pisiform bone and then passes the lateral aspect of the hook of the hamate.
b.In part, the origin of the abductor digiti minimi muscle is from the pisiform bone.
c.The interossei and the lumbricals resist hyperextension at the MP joint.
d.The deep branch of the ulnar nerve passes deep into the palm of the hand by passing between the heads of origin of abductor digiti minimi and flexor digiti minimi brevis.
e.The superficial radial nerve provides sensation to the nail bed of the fifth digit.
f.The radial artery passes deep into the palm by passing between the heads of origin of the first dorsal interosseous.
g.The anterior interosseous artery enters into the dorsal carpal rete.
h.The princeps pollicis artery passes along the posterior border of the first metacarpal bone medial to the radial head of the first dorsal interosseous and lateral to the oblique head of adductor pollicis.
i.The extensor hood of the third digit receives contributions from the attachments of five tendons.
j.The pisiform bone is a sesamoid bone within the tendon of flexor carpi ulnaris.
k.Ulnar nerve injury at the level of the hook of the hamate is expected to result in claw hand (flexed interphalangeal joints and hyperextended metacarpalphalangeal joints).
l.Recurrent median nerve injury is expected to result in simian (ape) hand (supinated thumb).
m.The ulnar boundary of the anatomical snuff box is the tendon of extensor pollicis longus.
n.The trapezium makes up the floor of the anatomical snuff box.
o.The interossei muscles attach to the extensor hood distal to the attachment of the lumbrical muscles.
p.Distal to the extensor pollicis brevis the posterior interosseus nerve runs superficial to extensor pollicis longus.

True False for 2006 Back & Upper Limb Written Examination

1. With regard to the back and the vertebral column:
a.The anterior longitudinal ligament limits flexion of the back.
b.Serratus posterior inferior is innervated by intercostal nerves.
c.The transversospinal group of muscles are innervated by ventral rami.
d.The longissimus muscle extends as far superiorly as the mastoid process.
e.The thoracolumbar fascia provides a site of origin for the rhomboideus major muscle.
f.The semispinalis capitus muscle contributes to the posterior boundary of the suboccipital triangle.
g.The iliocostalis thoracis muscle attaches to the ribs along the costotransverse joints
h.The posterior external vertebral venous plexus is observed during dissection of the suboccipital triangle.
i.The ligamentum flavum extends between adjacent pedicles.
j.The nuchal ligment can be considered an extension of the interspinous ligament into the neck region.

2. With regard to the axilla and brachial plexus:
a.The dorsal scapular nerve arises from the posterior cord of the brachial plexus.
b.A lesion of the medial and lateral pectoral nerves would weaken medial rotation and adduction of the arm.
c.A lesion of the median nerve within the axilla would cause supination of the the thumb and the appearance of an “ape hand.”
d.A lesion of the musculocutaneous nerve within the axilla would cause uncompensated loss of flexion at the elbow.
e.A lesion of the ulnar nerve within the axilla would cause the resting hand to be extended and abducted.
f.A lesion of the radial nerve within the axilla would cause anesthesia of the dorsum of the hand at the base of the 5th metacarpal.
g.The ascending branch of the profunda brachii communicates directly with the thoracoacromial trunk.
h.Complete lesions of the ulnar, median, radial, and musculocutaneous nerves within the axilla will cause total loss of flexion at the elbow.

3. With regard to the arm:
a.The brachialis muscle assists the biceps brachii in flexing the arm.
b.The pectoralis major crosses the transverse humeral ligament prior to inserting on the medial lip of the intertubercular sulcus (bicipital groove).
c.The radial collateral artery, within the cubital fossa, is between the ulnar head of pronator teres and the medial border of the brachialis.
d.Within the cubital fossa the median nerve lies medial to the brachial artery.
e.The median cubital vein crosses the posterior (deep) surface of the bicipital aponeurosis.
f.The radial recurrent artery is, in part, within the cubital fossa.
g.The humeral head of the pronator teres takes origin from the coronoid process.
h.The lateral head of the triceps brachii originates superior and lateral to the spiral groove whereas the medial head of the triceps brachii originates medial and inferior to the spiral groove.
i.The profunda brachii artery gives rise to the middle collateral artery and the radial collateral artery.
j.The ulnar head of the pronator teres takes origin from the tuberosity of the ulna.
k.A complete lesion of the radial nerve at the spiral (radial) groove causes loss of supination of the forearm.
l.The radial nerve passes posterior to the superior free edge of the teres major to enter into the triangular interval.
m.Both the coracobrachialis and the short head of the biceps cross two joints and both have a common site of origin.

4. With regard to the flexor region of the forearm:
a.The ulnar nerve passes between the two heads of origin of the pronator teres muscle.
b.The pronator quadratus has a radial origin and an ulnar insertion.
c.A complete lesion of the ulnar nerve at the ulnar groove would cause loss of flexion at the distal interphalengeal joints for the medial two digits.
d.A complete lesion of the ulnar nerve at the ulnar groove would cause the wrist joint to be partially extended and partially abducted (radially deviated).
e.A complete lesion of the median nerve superior to the cubital fossa will weaken flexion at the elbow joint.
f.A complete lesion of the median nerve superior to the cubital fossa will cause the wrist to be partially extended and partially abducted (radial deviated).
g.The median nerve leaves the cubital fossa by passing between the humeral and ulnar heads of origin of the pronator teres whereas the ulnar artery proceeds into the forearm deep to the ulnar head of the pronator teres.
h.The median nerve passes posterior to the superior free edge of the flexor digitorum profundus.
i.Within the distal forearm the median nerve is along the medial border of flexor carpi radialis.

5. With regard to the hand:
a.The ulnar nerve enters the palm lateral to the pisiform bone and then passes the medial aspect of the hook of the hamate.
b.In part, the origin of the abductor digiti minimi muscle is from the pisiform bone.
c.The intrinsic muscles of the hand, and the lumbricals in particular, play a key role in preventing hyperextension at the MP joint.
d.The deep branch of the ulnar nerve passes deep into the palm of the hand by passing between the heads of origin of abductor digiti minimi and flexor digiti minimi brevis.
e.The superficial radial nerve provides sensation to the nail beds of the radial 2 fingers.
f.The radial artery passes deep into the palm by passing between the heads of origin of the second dorsal interosseous.
g.The anterior interosseous nerve, after providing motor innervation to pronator quadratus, continues onto the hand and supplies sensation to the joints of the wrist.
h.The princeps pollicis artery passes along the posterior border of the first metacarpal bone between the radial head of the first dorsal interosseous and the oblique head of adductor pollicis.
i.The extensor hood of the second digit receives contributions from the attachments of five tendons.
j.The pisiform bone is a sesamoid bone within the tendon of extensor carpi ulnaris.
k.The dorsal branch of the ulnar nerve provides cutaneous sensation to the nail beds of the 5th digit and the medial half of the nail bed to the 4th digit.
l.The tendon synovial sheath for flexor pollicis longus sometimes communicates with the tendon flexor synovial sheath for the 5th digit.

True False for 2005 Back & Upper Limb Written Examination

2. With regard to the back region:
a.The axial musculature is innervated by ventral rami.
b.The serratus posterior inferior mediates exhalation.
c.The serratus posterior superior retracts the scapula
d.The dorsal scapular nerve crosses medial to the levator scapula muscle.
e.The suprascapular nerve passes superior to the superior transverse scapular ligament.
f.The spinal accessory nerve crosses lateral to the levator scapula muscle.
g.The semispinalis capitus muscle contributes to the anterior boundary of the suboccipital triangle.
h.The thoracolumbar fascia contributes to the origin of the latissimus dorsi muscle.

3. With regard to the suboccipital region:
a.The greater occipital nerve provides motor innervation to the muscles that compose the boundaries of the suboccipital triangle.
b.The obliquus capitus inferior muscle rotates the atlantooccipital joint.
c.The rectus capitus posterior muscle acts to flex the atlantooccipital joint
d.The transverse foramina of the atlas and axis transmit the vertebral artery.
e.The obliquus capitus superior muscle takes origin from the superior nuchal line
f.The vertebral artery passes through the posterior atlantooccipital membrane.
g.The suboccipital nerve crosses the superior nuchal line medial to the occipital artery
h.The greater occipital nerve leaves the suboccipital region by passing posterior to the obliquus capitus inferior muscle.
i.The spine of the axis is bifid whereas the atlas has a tubercle in place of a spine
j.The rectus capitus posterior major muscle crosses both the atlantooccipital joint and the atlantoaxial joint.

4. With regard to the scapular region:
b.The infraspinous fossa is the site of the acromial anastomosis.
c.The omohyoid muscle is lateral to the superior transverse scapular ligament.
d.Ligation (occlusion, blockage) of the 2nd part of the axillary artery causes reverse blood flow in the suprascapular artery.
e.The upper fibers of the trapezius muscle insert lateral on the scapular spine
f.The serratus anterior muscle assists the trapezius muscle in mediating upward rotation of the scapula
g.The coracoid process provides for the insertion of the coracobrachialis and the origin of the pectoralis minor.

5. With regard to the axilla and brachial plexus*
a.The cords of the brachial plexus are named based on their position around the second part of the axillary artery.
b.The axillary artery begins as the continuation of the subclavian artery at the upper border of the third rib.
c.The subscapular artery usually arises from the third segment (part) of the axillary artery.
d.The suprascapular nerve arises from the upper trunk of the brachial plexus.
e.The medial cord is the direct continuation of the anterior division of the lower trunk.
f.The long thoracic nerve arises from the posterior cord of the brachial plexus.
g.The axillary nerve provides motor input to the deltoid and teres minor muscles
h.Complete lesions of the musculocutaneous and median nerves within the axilla will cause total loss of flexion at the elbow joint.
i.A lesion of the posterior cord involving all of its branches will cause total loss of medial rotation at the glenohumeral joint.
j.Complete lesions of the ulnar, median, radial, and musculocutaneous nerves within the axilla will cause total loss of flexion at the elbow.

6. With regard to the anterior compartment of the arm:*
a.All flexors in the anterior compartment of the arm are innervated by the musculocutaneous nerve.
b.The brachialis muscle assists the biceps brachii in flexing the arm.
c.The brachial artery begins lateral to the median nerve in the upper arm and then crosses to the medial side of the brachial artery as it approaches the cubital fossa.
d.The lateral antebrachial cutaneous nerve can be found crossing the anterior surface of the brachialis muscle and the posterior surface of the biceps brachii muscle.
e.The coracobrachialis muscle contributes to the range of abduction from 125 degrees to approximately 145 degrees.
f.The inferior ulnar collateral artery crosses anterior to the axis of the elbow joint.

7. With regard to the posterior compartment of the arm:
a.The anterior boundary of the triangular space is, in part, formed by the spiral (radial) groove of the humerus.
b.The ascending branch of the profunda brachii artery participates in an anastomosis with the posterior humeral circumflex artery.
c.The lateral head of the triceps brachii originates superior and lateral to the spiral groove, whereas the medial head of the triceps brachii originates medial and inferior to the spiral groove.
d.The profunda brachii artery gives rise to the middle collateral artery and the radial collateral artery.
e.The deep radial nerve innervates the anconeus muscle.
f.The radial collateral artery pierces the lateral intermuscular septum.
g.A complete lesion of the radial nerve at the spiral (radial) groove causes loss of extension at the elbow.
h.A complete lesion of the radial nerve at the spiral (radial) groove causes “wrist drop.”

8. With regard to the anterior compartment of the forearm:
a.The ulnar nerve passes between the two heads of origin of the flexor carpi ulnaris muscle
b.The pronator teres has a humeral head of origin and a radial head of origin
c.A complete lesion of the ulnar nerve at the ulnar groove would cause loss of flexion of the distal interphalangeal joint for the lateral two digits.
d.A complete lesion of the ulnar nerve at the ulnar groove would cause the wrist joint to be partially extended and partially abducted (radially deviated).
e.A complete lesion of the ulnar nerve at the ulnar groove will weaken abduction of the little finger.
f.A complete lesion of the median nerve superior to the cubital fossa will weaken flexion at the elbow joint.
g.A complete lesion of the median nerve superior to the cubital fossa would cause the wrist to be partially extended and partially adducted (ulnar deviated).
h.The anterior interosseous nerve and artery pierce the distal interosseous membrane to enter the posterior compartment.

9. With regard to the posterior compartment of the forearm:
a.The posterior interosseous nerve and the anterior interosseous artery travel along the posterior surface of the distal interosseous membrane.
b.The deep radial nerve innervates all muscles in the posterior compartment of the forearm.
c.The deep radial nerve is applied to the bony surface of the radius as it travels from the cubital fossa to the posterior compartment of the arm.
d.The radial nerve innervates the supinator muscle.
e.A complete lesion of the posterior interosseous nerve causes “wrist drop.”
f.A complete lesion of the deep radial nerve causes “wrist drop.”
g.The interosseous recurrent artery lies deep to the anconeus muscle and forms and anastomosis with the middle collateral artery.
h.The posterior interosseous artery circles the lateral aspect of the radius in close proximity to the posterior interosseous nerve.
10. With regard to the dorsum of the hand:
a.The tendon of the extensor indicis muscle is anterior (palmar) to the tendon of the extensor digitorum muscle.
b.The deep radial nerve innervates the extensor digitorum brevis prior to providing sensation between the second and third digits.
c.The dorsal interosseous muscles are bipennate (have two heads of origin with a central tendon).
d.Independent movement of the digits during extension is partly due to intertendinous slips.
e.The superficial radial nerve provides sensation to the nail beds of the radial 2 fingers.
f.The index finger has two dorsal interosseous muscles inserting onto the extensor hood.
g.The interosseous muscles attach to the extensor hood distal to the attachments of the lumbricals.
h.The superficial radial nerve travels from the anterior forearm to the dorsum of the hand by passing deep to the tendon of the extensor pollicis brevis.

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-- LorenEvey - 29 Sep 2008

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