Pharynx, Nasal Cavity, and Oral Cavity - Learning Objectives and Review Questions
True/False for Oral Cavity and Pharynx
The vermillion border is highlighted by vasculature.
The orbicularis oris muscle interdigitates with the buccinator muscle.
The vestibule is anterior to the alveolar processes.
The parotid gland empties into the vestibule.
The circumvalate papilla are located anterior to the sulcus terminalis.
The lingual nerve and the lingual veins are in close proximity.
The lingual tonsils are reside posterior to the sulcus terminalis.
The faucial tonsils are located between the palatal arches.
The common chemical sense responds to hot peppers and is mediated by the trigeminal nerve.
The intrinsic muscles of the tongue are all innervated by the hypoglossal nerve.
The styloglossus supports the posterior tongue and provides for elevation and retraction of the tongue.
The hyoglossus depresses the tongue.
The genioglossus muscle protrudes the tongue.
The submandibular gland occupies the floor and the mouth and the submandibular triangle.
Infections anterior to the second molar pushes the tongue posteriorly and threatens the airway.
Infections posterior the second molar may spread into the submandibular triangle and then into the spaces defined by cervical fascia.
The inferior boundary of the nasopharynx is at the level of the soft palate.
Like roof shingles, the constrictor muscles overlap with the inferior constrictor being most posterior (edge of roof).
The pharynx dilates to receive a bolus of food and then generates wave of constriction to drive the bolus distally along the alimentary canal.
The cricopharyngeus muscle consists of radial fibers that make up a true sphincter.
The pharygobasilar fascia is at the most superior parts of the pharynx and attaches to the pharyngeal tubercle.
Cricopharyngeus relaxes to allow a bolus to proceed distally but then maintains tone to prevent reflux.
Adenoids are lymphatic tissue of the nasopharynx.
The soft palate prevents air intake during phonation.
The integrity of the pharyngeal seal generated by the soft palate is vulnerable to laughter.
Snoring may be treated by uvuloplasty.
The palatine tonsilar bed is bordered anterior by the palatopharyngeus and posterior by the palatoglossus.
The tensor veli palatini may open the auditory tube at the nasopharynx when swallowing. Thus, children may better tolerate changes in elevation while chewing gum.
Symmetrical elevation of the soft palate indicates that SVE fibers of the trigeminal nerve are intact.
The hypopharynx begins at the level of the epiglottus.
The paranasal sinuses are said to provide a reproductive advantage through the qualities of phonation.
A "cocaine window" may develop due to chronic constriction of mucosal vessels leading to necrosis of the nasal septum.
Snow skiing commonly leads to a congested and runny noise due to decreased sympathetic tone and increased parasympathetic tone.
Snow skiing commonly involves breathing in dry and cold air.
The vallate papilla are located posterior to the sulcus terminalis.
The vermilion line marks a transition toward heavily vascularized tissue of the lip.
The intrinsic muscles of the tongue primarily shape of the tongue.
The extrinsic muscles of the tongue are primarily involved in the movements of swallowing and phonation.
The primary blood supply to the tongue is by the lingual artery.
The mylohyoid has a role in raising the larynx during swallowing.
The posterior free edge of the mylohyoid muscle has clinical significance for spread of infection.
The submandibular gland wraps around the posterior free edge of the mylohyoid.
A mass of the floor of the mouth that pushes the tongue posterior puts the airway at risk.
The philtrum is a bilateral property of the buccinator muscle.
The oral vestibule is anterior and lateral to the "front" teeth.
The parotid duct (Stenson's duct) opens into the oral cavity adjacent to the lower incisors.
Parotid gland surgery requires care to avoid damaging the buccal nerve.
The body of the mandible is more commonly fractured than is the coronoid process.
The insertion of the temporalis muscle is intermediate to the insertions of the masseter and medial pterygoid muscles.
The lingual veins are closely related to the hypoglossal nerve.
The vallate papillae are located anterior to the sulcus terminalis.
The faucial tonsils are located posterior to the palatoglossal arch and anterior to the palatopharyngeal arch.
The lingual, faucial, and adenoid lymphatic tissues make up a ring of lymphatic tissue.
The GSA component of the trigeminal nerve senses chemical stimuli but not "taste" stimuli.
The mylohyoid muscle is superior the geniohyoid and inferior to the anterior belly of the digastric muscle.
The intrinsic muscles of the tongue are innervated by SVE fibers from the buccal branch of the facial nerve.
Symmetrical (midline) protrusion of the tongue is mediated by the paired genioglossus muscles.
Asymmetrical protrusion of the tongue indicates a unilateral lesion of the hypoglossal nerve ipsilateral to the side of deviation.
The geniohyoid muscle is inferior to the genioglossus muscle.
The tendon of insertion for the stylohyoid muscle typically spits the digastric muscle intertendon.
The posterior free edge of the mylohyoid muscle provides a path for spread of infection from the floor of the mouth to the neck.
Infections of the molar teeth may erupt inferior to the mylohyoid line and, thus, spread into the neck.
The stylopharyngeus muscle raises the pharynx during swallowing.
The superior constrictor muscle arises, in part, from the pterygomandibular ligament.
The middle constrictor muscle arises, in part, from the stylohyoid ligament.
The inferior constrictor muscle arises, in part, from the thyroid cartilage.
The cricopharyngeus muscle in a true sphincter of the esophagus.
A weak cricopharyngeus muscle may lead to reflux.
The lymphatic drainage of the pharynx is relevant to spread of infection.
The nasopharynx includes the internal opening of the auditory tube.
The salpingopharyngeus muscle has a role in equalizing air pressure within the middle ear.
Passavant's ridge provides a seal between the hypopharynx and oropharynx.
Levator palati is innervated by the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve.
The palatoglossus and salpingopharyngeus muscles are innervated by the vagus nerve.
Tensor veli palatine receives SVE innervation from the glossopharyngeal nerve.
The palatoglossus and the palatopharyngeus define the palatine tonsillar bed.
The piriform sinuses receive the contents of a swallow.
The paranasal sinuses are air sinuses.
The paranasal sinuses rely on mucosal cilia to facilitate mucosal drainage.
The ostiomeatal complex includes the uncinate process and the ethmoid bulla.
Kiesselbach's plexus receives blood from the facial, sphenopalatine, and ethmoidal arteries.
The pharyngeal plexus derived from the vagus nerve supplies SVE fibers to the middle constrictor whereas the pharyngeal plexus derived from the glossopharyngeal nerve provides GVA fibers to pharyngeal mucosa lining the middle constrictor.
The submandibular duct enters the floor of the mouth medial to the lingual nerve and then crosses the superior aspect of the nerve to finally continue further anterior and terminate lateral to the lingual nerve.
The parotid duct enters the oral cavity at the level of the 3rd lower molar.
The inferior alveolar processes receive GSA fibers from the maxillary division of the trigeminal nerve.
All of the tongue muscles, intrinsic and extrinsic, receive GSE innervation from the hypoglossal nerve with the sole exception of the genioglossus.
The posterior 1/3 of the tongue receive GSA innervation from the vagus nerve.
"Epiglottic taste" is generally attributed to SVA fibers conveyed by the vagus nerve.
The lingual arteries approach the base of the tongue by crossing the lateral aspect of the hyoglossus muscle.
The frenulum of the tongue is attached to the midline raphe of the mylohyoid muscle.
The middle constrictor is, in part, attached to the stylohyoid ligament.
The cricopharyngeus muscle tenses the true vocal fold whereas the cricothyroideus tenses the upper espophageal sphincter.
The stylopharyngeus muscle passes between the superior and middle constrictor muscles.
The stylopharyngeus muscle receives SVE innervation from the vagus nerve.
The stylopharyngeus is crossed on its medial surface by the glossopharyngeal nerve.
Paralysis of the stylopharyngeus muscle is expected to compromise swallowing.
The buccinator muscle shares and attachment with the middle constrictor at the pterygomandibular raphe.
The torus tubarius forms the superior border of the hiatus semilunaris.
The anterior ethmoidal air cells and the sphenoid sinus drain into the middle nasal meatus.
None of the paranasal sinuses drain directly into the inferior nasal meatus.
The palatine tonsillar bed is bordered anterior by the palatopharyngeal fold.
The levator palatini, salpingopharyngeus, and tensor veli palatini all have immediate relationships to the cartilage of the auditory tube.
The tensor veli palatine takes origin from the hamulus of the medial pterygoid plate.
A lesion of the right hypoglossal nerve causes the protruded tongue to deviate to the left.
The tongue receives GSA fibers from the trigeminal nerve, SVA fibers, from the facial nerve, SVA fibers from the glossopharyngeal nerve, GVA fibers from the glosspharyngeal nerve, a hint of SVA fibers from the vagus nerve, GSE fibers from the hypoglossal nerve, and GVE fibers from the facial nerve.
Discuss the nasopharynx. Include fascial barriers, contents, relationships, foramina, nerve distributions, and nerve embarrassment. Discuss a possible spread of infection from the nasopharynx.
Discuss the oropharynx. Include fascial barriers, contents, relationships, foramina, nerve distributions, and nerve embarrassment. Discuss a possible spread of infection from the oropharynx.
Discuss the hypopharynx. Include fascial barriers, contents, relationships, foramina, nerve distributions, and nerve embarrassment. Discuss a possible spread of infection from the hypopharynx.
Discuss the lateral nasal wall. Include bones, relationships, foramina, drainages, nerve distributions, and nerve embarrassment. Discuss a possible spread of infection from the paranasal sinuses.
Discuss the floor of the mouth. Include bones, muscles, ducts, relationships, nerve distributions, functional components, and nerve embarrassment. Discuss a possible spread of infection from the floor of the mouth.
Discuss the tongue. Include bones, muscles, movements, relationships, nerve distributions, functional components, and nerve embarrassment. Discuss a possible spread of infection from the tongue.
Discuss the palatine tonsillar bed. Include fascial barriers, contents, relationships, vasculature, nerve distributions, and nerve embarrassment. Discuss a possible spread of infection from a tonsillar abscess.
Discuss the constrictor muscles. Include fascial barriers, relationships, functional components, nerve distributions, and nerve embarrassment. Discuss a possible spread of infection inspired by a sharp bone lodged in the piriform recess.