Essay Question #1: An 18 year old football player is tackled during a football game. He falls to the ground holding his left knee. When reviewing the video replay of the tackle, it is noted that he was struck on the posterior lateral aspect of the knee. On exam, he has a positive anterior drawer sign (forward sliding of tibia) and tenderness and laxity (relaxation/looseness) of the medial joint space of the knee when valgus stress is placed on it. Discuss the anatomy of the knee joint with regards to this injury. Explain the normal anatomy of bones, cartilage, and ligaments. Discuss the anterior drawer sign and what a positive finding indicates. Explain what the finding of laxity during a valgus stress test indicates. What structures are likely injured?
Essay Question #2: The passenger of a sports car was thrown forward during an acute deceleration. A posterior dislocation of the hip joint was confirmed by a radiologic study. Discuss the anatomy of the hip joint with regards to this injury. Explain the normal anatomy of bones, cartilage, and ligaments. What structures are likely injured?