Human Gross Anatomy Review Questions - Abdomen, Pelvis, Perineum

Recommended Resources: Hollinshead and Rosse, lecture notes, and laboratory observation

Human Gross Anatomy at The Pennsylvania State University: College of Medicine

The Structural Basis of Medical Practice
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  1. Discuss the anatomy (relations - 6 directions, boundaries, vertebral levels, structure, surfaces, vessels, innervation - motor and sensory, support, function, clinical significance) of the:
  2. A. stomach
    B. liver
    C. gall bladder
    D. pancreas
    E. spleen
    F. duodenum (parts 1 - 4)
    G. jejunum
    H. ileum
    I. parts of the colon including flexures
    J. rectum
    K. suprarenal glands
    L. kidneys
    M. abdominal aorta
    N. diaphragm
    O. uterus and ovaries
    P. vagina
    Q. urinary bladder
    R. prostate gland
    S. urogenital diaphragm
  3. Discuss the anatomy and clinical significance of the right and left hypogastric nerves.
  4. Discuss the ligaments derived from the external oblique aponeurosis. Relate three of these ligaments to the course of a femoral hernia.
  5. Discuss the anatomical course followed by secretions traveling from the testis to the seminal vesicle and then continuing to the penile urethra.
  6. What are the relations of the left colic flexure?
  7. Discuss the actions and innervations of the muscles that contribute to ejaculation.
  8. What spinal levels mark the inferior extent of the diaphragm as it crosses the aorta, psoas major, and quadratus?
  9. Discuss the course taken by each of the arteries that contribute blood supply to the colon (large bowel).
  10. Discuss the vascular supply (including lymphatics) to the uterus?
  11. What is the significance of portacaval shunts (anastomses)? Where are they located?
  12. What is the location of cell bodies that provide: 1) preganglionic parasympathetic fibers, 2) preganglionic sympathetic fibers, 3) postganglionic parasympathetic fibers, and 4) postganglionic sympathetic fibers to each of the following areas? In addition, discuss the anatomical pathways (plexuses) followed by autonomic fibers traveling to each area.
  13. A. stomach
    B. duodenal cap (part 1)
    C. ascending duodenum (part 4)
    D. kidney
    E. right colic flexure
    F. left colic flexure
    G. rectum
    H. cervix of uterus
    I. ovary
    J. testis
    K. head of the epididymus
    L. corpora cavernosum
  14. What relation must the surgeon consider when ligating the uterine artery?
  15. What structures support the urinary bladder within the pelvis?
  16. Discuss the anatomy that could explain symptoms of vomiting paired with left renal failure.
  17. What fascial layers lie anterior to the rectus abdominus muscle at levels below the arcuate line and at levels above the umbilicus?
  18. What critical vessels must the surgeon preserve when removing the spleen?
  19. What is the cremasteric reflex and what nerves (including spinal levels) are involved?
  20. Discuss the vascular supply (arteries, veins, lymph) of the urinary bladder.
  21. What are the relations of the psoas major muscle within the abdomen?
  22. Where would you test cutaneous sensation to assess spinal cord damage at the levels of: 1) T8, 2) T10, and 3) T12?
  23. During the course of worsening appendicitis there is a characteristic progression in the experience of pain. Explain.
  24. Discuss the course of the pudendal nerve and its branches. Include mention of key relations.
  25. What prevents a direct hernia from entering the scrotum? What fascial layers are involved?
  26. What is the relation of the conjoint tendon to a direct hernia?
  27. Short definitions
  28. A. median arcuate ligament
    B. arcus tendineus
    C. esophageal vein
    D. minor duodenal papilla
    E. ligamentum venosum
    F. intestinal arcade
    G. vasa recta
    H. mesoovarium
    I. lumbar splanchnic nerve
    J. neurovascular plane
    K. parietal pelvic fascia
    L. floating gall bladder
    M. inferior anterior and posterior pancreaticodudenal arteries
    N. medial inguinal fossa
    O. lateral inguinal fossa
    P. supravesical fossa
  29. Discuss the anatomy that explains why femoral hernias are prone to strangulation.
  30. What are the relations of an indirect hernia from its neck to its lowest extent in the scrotum?
  31. How is the puborectalis muscle different from the pubococcygeus?
  32. What is the difference between a pelvic splanchnic nerve and a sacral splanchnic nerve?
  33. In terms of the component autonomic fibers, what is a primary difference between the superior mesenteric plexus and the inferior mesenteric plexus?
  34. Compare the autonomic innervation of the tail of the epididymus to autonomic innervation of the testis.
  35. Discuss the anatomy of the prostatic urethra.
  36. What is the anatomic pathway followed by parasympathetic nerves that innervate the corpora spongiosum of the male.
  37. What facial layers are penetrated by a stab wound through the rectus abdominus muscle at the level of the umbilicus. Assume that the penetrating injury stopped within the peritoneal cavity.
  38. Discuss the anatomy of the transverse colon including the left and right colic flexures. Include structure, relations, vascularization, innervations.
  39. Explain the anatomy of the "caput medusa" that results from portal hypertension.
  40. Where is the primary lymph drainage from the following areas?
  41. A. fundus of the uterus
    B. cervix of the uterus
    C. scrotum
    D. testis
    E. ovary
    F. first part of duodenum
    G. fourth part of duodenum
    H. tail of pancreas
    I. rectum below pectin line
    J. superior third of rectum
    K. middle third of rectum
    L. anus
    M. distal third of vagina
    N. upper 2/3 of vagina
    O. left colic flexure
    P. right colic flexure
    Q. kidney
  42. What structure(s) are between:
  43. A. psoas major and the fifth lumbar vertebra
    B. lateral arcuate ligament and quadratus lumborum
    C. stomach and pancreas
    D. superior fascia of UG diaphragm and inferior fascia of pelvic diaphragm
    E. lumbosacral trunk and S1 (usually)
    F. tunica albuginea and the head of the epididymus
    G. anterior and posterior lamina of broad ligament
    H. superior and inferior fascia of the urogenital diaphragm in the female
    I. lumbosacral trunk and S1 (usually)
    J. layers of the hepatoduodenal ligament
    K. The uncinate process and the head of the pancreas
  44. Discuss the anatomy of the prostatic urethra.
  45. Within the rectus sheath and below the arcuate line, what fascial layers lie posterior to the rectus abdominus muscle? Above the arcuate line?
  46. Discuss the anatomy of the posterior free edge of the UG diaphragm?
  47. Along what part of the gastrointestinal tract is there an anastomosis between the celiac arterial supply and the superior mesenteric arterial supply. Along what part of the gastrointestinal tract is there an anastomosis between the superior mesenteric supply and the inferior mesenteric arterial supply. What arteries directly contribute to these anastomoses?
  48. Discuss the parasympathetic innervation to the hindgut.
  49. Extravasation of urine into the superficial pouch will fill a potential space limited by the boundaries of Scarpa's fascia and its derivatives. What are these derivatives and boundaries?
  50. Explain why the transverses abdominis muscle does not contribute a tunic to the spermatic cord.
  51. How does strengthening the anterior abdominal wall muscles help to stabilize the vertebral column?
  52. What major vessel is associated with the bare area of the liver?