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Back: Review Questions (from lecture handout)

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Posted by lae2 on October 14, 2017 at 09:13:11:

Back: Review Questions
True/False
1. The anterior longitudinal ligament forms, in part, the anterior boundary of the spinal canal.
2. The superior and inferior vertebral notches form intervertebral foramina.
3. The anterior longitudinal ligament resists flexion of the back.
4. The denticulate ligaments are extensions of the arachnoidea.
5. The filum terminalis externus is derived from dura mater whereas the filum terminalis internus is derived from arachnoidea.
6. The dural sac extends inferiorly to the level of the 2nd and maybe 3rd lumbar vertebrae.
7. The internal anterior vertebral venous plexus is within the epidural fat.
8. The posterior vertebral venous plexus is within the subarachnoid space.
9. The internal vertebral venous plexus is valveless and, thus, provides part of a pathway for spread of infection from the ischiorectal fossa to the cranium.
10. The external vertebral venous plexus is demonstrated during dissection of the suboccipital region.
11. The spinal cord relies, in part, on radicular arteries for critical vascularization.
12. The intermediate muscles of the back are innervated by the long thoracic nerve.
13. Serratus posterior superioris pulls the upper ribs in the superior direction and is, thus, a muscle of inspiration.
14. Serratus posterior inferioris pulls the lower ribs downward and, thus, is a muscle of inspiration.
15. Paralysis of the rhomboids (dorsal scapular nerve) and the trapezius (spinal accessory nerve) is expected cause uncompensated loss of retraction of the scapula.
16. Latissimus dorsi, a powerful extensor of the arm, can act as a flexor when the arm is fully extended.
17. The transversospinal group of muscles are innervated by the dorsal rami (segmental) of spinal nerves.
18. The action of levator scapular is to depress the scapula.
19. The thoracolumbar fascia provides a site of origin for the rhomboids and the levator scapula.
20. The longissimus muscle extends as far superiorly as the mastoid process of the skull.
21. Iliocostalis attaches to the ribs along the costotransverse joints.

Identification and Short Answer
1. Thoracolumbar fascia
2. Innervation of intrinsic (deep) muscles of the back
3. Nuchal ligament
4. Anterior longitudinal ligament
5. Posterior longitudinal ligament
6. Ligamentum flavum
7. Intervertebral disk
8. Superior nuchal line
9. pedicle
10. Superior and Inferior vertebral notches
11. Lamina
12. Transverse foramen
13. Vertebral foramen
14. Triangle of auscultation
15. Lumbar triangle

Essay
1. Discuss the surface anatomy of the back.
2. Discuss the bony parts of the scapula.
3. Discuss the structure, relationships, innervation (sensory and motor), vasculature, and lymphatics of the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar vertebrae.
4. Discuss the stabilization of the vertebral column.
5. Discuss the attachments and relationships of the superior nuchal line.
6. Discuss the structure, relationships, innervation (sensory and motor), vasculature, and lymphatics of the superficial, intermediate, and deep muscles of the back.
7. Discuss rotation of the scapula by the trapezius muscle.
8. Discuss the anatomy of the erector spinae muscles. Include relationships, fascial specializations, vascularization, innervation, lymphatics, movements, and compensation in the case of nerve injury.
9. Discuss the anatomy of the superior and inferior posterior serratus muscles. Include relationships, fascial specializations, vascularization, innervation, lymphatics, movements, and compensation in the case of nerve injury.
10. Discuss the anatomy of the rhomboideus major and minor muscles. Include relationships, fascial specializations, vascularization, innervation, lymphatics, movements, and compensation in the case of nerve injury.
11. Discuss the anatomy of the levator scapula muscle. Include relationships, fascial specializations, vascularization, innervation, lymphatics, movements, and compensation in the case of nerve injury.


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