Posted by lae2 on October 14, 2021 at 06:51:44:
1. The testicular artery and pampiniform plexus are deep to the internal spermatic fascia.
2. The left paracolic gutter provides a communication between the hepatorenal recess and the pelvis.
3. The epiploic foramen opens from the lesser sac into the greater sac near the regions of the right paracolic gutter and the hepatorenal recess.
4. The caudate lobe defines the superior boundary of the epiploic foramen.
5. The left and right gastroepiploic arteries anastomose along the lesser curvature of the stomach.
6. The fundus of the stomach may undergo ischemic necrosis if the short gastric arteries are inadvertently ligated.
7. Lymphatic drainage from the left colic flexure is toward superior mesenteric nodes, whereas lymphatic drainage from the right colic flexure is toward inferior mesenteric nodes.
8. Taenia coli, plicae circulares, and appendices epiploicae are characteristics of the large intestine.
9. A blockage of the common bile duct may cause colicky pain and jaundice.
10. The thoracic duct passes through the aortic hiatus, whereas the greater, lesser, and least splanchnic nerves pass through the crura of the diaphragm.
11. The arterial supply to the suprarenal glands is by three arteries, whereas the venous drainage is by one vein.
12. An inferior boundary of the posterior recess of the ischiorectal fossa is the perianal skin.
13. In the case of extravasation of urine into the potential space defined by Scarpa's fascia and its derivatives; urine will accumulate between Colles' fascia and Buck's fascia of the penis.
14. The potential space defined by Scarpa's fascia extends superior to the level of the xiphisternal joint (finger like extensions) and inferior to a level about two centimeters inferior to the inguinal ligament.
15. Overlying the bulb of the penis and the bulb of the vestibule is the ischiocavernosus muscle.
16. The muscles of the deep pouch and the muscles of the superficial pouch receive somatic innervation by branches of the pudendal nerve.
17. The deep dorsal vein of the clitoris enters the pelvis by way of a gap between the arcuate ligament and the deep transverse perineal ligament to then drain into the vesicle venous plexus.
18. The bulbourethral glands are located in the deep pouch, whereas the bulbourethral ducts empty into the prostatic urethra located in the superficial pouch.
19. The seminal vesicles are located lateral to the ampulla of the vas deferens.
20. The peripheral zone of the prostate is the site for 70% of cancers and is located within the posterior wall of the prostate, and thus, can be palpated during digital rectal examination.
21. Culdocentesis accesses the posterior vaginal fornix as means to sample fluids that may have accumulated in the rectovesical pouch.
22. The uterus is normally anteverted 90 degrees and then anteflexed another 30 degrees and, thus, the cervical canal and uterine body do not have a linear relationship with the vagina.
23. Lymphatic drainage of the superior pole of the ovary is to upper lumbar nodes (follows ovarian vessels), whereas lymphatic drainage of the inferior pole of the ovary is to superficial inguinal nodes (follows ovarian and round ligaments).
24. Lymphatic drainage of the distal vagina is to superficial inguinal nodes (follows external pudendal vessels).
25. The medial umbilical ligaments arises from the apex of the bladder.
26. The superior vesical arteries supply the anterosuperior region of the bladder and are the final branches of the obturator artery before it obliterates to become the lateral umbilical ligament.
27. Lymphatic drainage from the anal canal distal to pectinate line is toward superficial inguinal nodes (external pudendal vessels).
28. A midline episiotomy may infringe upon the external anal sphincter and, thus, carries the risk of fecal incontinence.
29. The iliac branch of the iliolumbar artery forms an anastomosis with the deep circumflex iliac artery and, thus, provides a shunt across the common iliac artery.
30. The bifurcation of the aorta is located at L4, whereas the inferior hypogastric plexus is located anterior to the L5 vertebral body.
31. The uterine artery, a branch of the anterior division of the internal iliac artery, travels along the superior surface of the transverse cervical ligament to supply the proximal vagina, cervix, and uterine body.
32. The anomalous obturator artery crosses the pectineal ligament to then enter the obturator canal and, thus, is vulnerable to ligation when suturing to the pectineal ligament for repair of inguinal hernias.
33. The puborectalis muscle circles the proximal anal canal superior to the anococcygeal ligament (body) and inferior to the anococcygeal raphe.
34. The rectouterine pouch of the female and the rectovesical pouch of the male define the most inferior extents of the abdominopelvic cavity.
35. The retropubic space provides surgical access to elevate the pubovesical ligament by suturing it to the pectineal ligament as a treatment for urinary incontinence.
36. The external anal sphincter is somatically innervated and is, thus, under voluntary control.
37. Transection of the left hypogastric nerve, as a treatment for pelvic pain, may risk the parasympathetic innervation to much of the hindgut.
38. Referred pain secondary to perturbation of pelvic viscera inferior to the pelvic pain line may manifest along the posterior thigh, leg, and foot; reflecting the distribution of the S2 dermatome.
39. Lumbar splanchnic nerves convey preganglionic sympathetic fibers, having cell bodies in the intermediolateral cell column of L1-2, from the lumbar plexus to the aortic plexus.
40. Postganglionic parasympathetic cell bodies that innervate the hindgut are located in the inferior mesenteric ganglion and elaborate fibers that travel in the inferior mesenteric periarterial autonomic plexus.
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