Posted by lae2 on October 13, 2021 at 17:56:50:
A patient has nausea, vomiting, and flank pain. The left side of his scrotum feels like a "bag of worms," indicating a varicocele. Describe the differences in blood supply and drainage between the right and left sides of the posterior abdomen. Include in your answer a discussion of nutcracker syndrome and why it affects the left side and not the right side.
A hiatal hernia occurs when a portion of the stomach is pulled through the esophageal hiatus and enters the thorax. Patients may experience belching, discomfort, and heartburn. Describe the anatomical relationships of the structures that pass between the thorax and abdomen in relation to the diaphragm.
True False Questions
The left pampiniform plexus drains into the testicular vein and then to the left renal vein.
Psoas minor, when present, flexes the trunk, but not the thigh.
The caval hiatus is at the T8 vertebral level; the esophageal hiatus at the T10 vertebral level; and the aortic hiatus at the T12 vertebral level.
The thoracic duct passes through the aortic hiatus, whereas the greater, lesser, and least splanchnic nerves pass through the crura of the diaphragm.
The esophageal hiatus and the ligament of Treitz are formed by the right crus of the diaphragm.
The medial and lateral arcuate ligaments of thickenings of the psoas major and quadratus lumborum epimysium and serve as attachments for the diaphragm.
The lumbocostal trigone rises from the left lateral arcuate ligament.
The right crus of the diaphragm arises from a vertebral level lower than the left crus of the diaphragm.
The L5 ventral ramus and a contribution from the L4 ventral ramus crosses the anterior surface of the ala of the sacrum and form the lumbosacral trunk.
The genitofemoral nerve mediates the cremasteric reflex.
The renal fascia does not support the inferior pole of the kidney and, thus, does not limit renal ptosis.
A major calyx is defined by the confluence of minor calyces, whereas the renal pelvis is defined by the confluence of the major calyces.
Preganglionic sympathetic fibers travel the entire route to the suprarenal glands and, thus, are an exception to the general rule that postganglionic cell bodies are extrinsic.
The are four pairs of lumbar arteries and 5 lumbar vertebrae.
Vomiting secondary to the nutcracker syndrome is expected to produce greenish vomitus.
The arterial supply to the suprarenal glands is by three arteries, whereas the venous drainage is by one vein.
The arterial supply to the ureter is augmented by the renal artery, aorta, and branches of the internal iliac.
The aortic plexus of autonomic fibers contains preganglionic fibers derived from the lumbar splanchnic nerves and postganglionic fibers derived from preaortic ganglia.
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